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Clinical Immunology

Robert B. Nussenblatt, M.D.
Robert B. Nussenblatt, M.D.
Section Head
Section on Clinical Immunology

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Building 10, Room 10N109
10 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892


Our Research Mission

The Section’s interest is focused on the immunological mechanisms involved in ocular pathology, including endogenous and exogenous uveitis, systemic diseases associated with uveitis (such as sarcoidosis, Behçet’s disease), ocular neoplasias (particularly ocular lymphoma), and age-related macular degeneration. The aim is to elucidate the immune mechanisms involved in the induction and resolution of disease in humans, and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches in patients. This Section is part of the Laboratory of Immunology.


About our Work

The Section’s interest is focused on the immunological mechanisms involved in ocular pathology. Recent efforts have centered on the study of immune responses in patients suffering from endogenous and exogenous uveitis, ocular neoplasias (particularly ocular lymphoma) and age related macular degeneration. The aim is to elucidate the immune mechanisms involved in the induction and resolution of disease in humans, and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches in patients. Many of these approaches are initially developed in animal models of human disease

Recently concluded clinical trials include an oral tolerance study using a HLA-B27-derived peptide (Optiquel®) as corticosteroid-sparing therapy for chronic non-infectious autoimmune uveitis

Currently ongoing clinical trials in which the Section has an involvement are listed below.

  • Epigenetics, Molecular Genetics, and Biomarkers of Degenerative and Inflammatory Ocular Diseases
  • The Microbiome and Ocular Inflammatory Disease
  • The Vitreous Proteome and inflammatory Mediators in Ocular Inflammatory Disease
  • Ocular and Immuno-Genetic Manifestations of Sarcoidosis
  • Evidence of Immunosenescence in Patients with Ocular Inflammatory Disease Including African Americans with Ocular Sarcoidosis
  • Immunological analysis of patients with ocular inflammatory diseases.
  • Rituximab for Autoimmune Retinopathy
  • Immunogenetic Mechanisms in Behçet’s Disease
  • Immune mediated prevention of AMD with feeding study

UNITE consortium

The Clinical Immunology section is part of the The Universities and National Institutes Transatlantic Eye (UNITE) Consortium for Human Ocular Immunology was established in 2012 between the National Eye Institute and the UK’s National Institute for Health Research Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre. In 2013 this was extended to include the Chinese State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology at Zongshan Ophthalmic Center and Sun Yat-sen University.

As such it joins the core government funded research programs in human inflammatory eye diseases across the US, UK and China, and it is the first such international agreement of its kind for the NIH.

UNITE’s broad mission is to advance knowledge in the field of ocular immunology through shared human laboratory and clinical protocols and the exchange of scientists and clinicians. This covers a broad range of eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and uveitis, and promises to achieve a step change in our understanding of, and treatments for, these blinding conditions.


Name Title E-mail Phone
Robert B. Nussenblatt, M.D.
PubMed Author Search
Section Head DrBob@nei.nih.gov 301-435-5139
H. Nida Sen, M.D., M.HSc Staff Clinician
Director, Uveitis and Ocular Immunology Fellowship Program
senh@nei.nih.gov 301-402-3254
Jing Chen, Ph.D. Staff Scientist chenjing@mail.nih.gov 301-594-3123
Benjamin Chaigne-Delalande, Ph.D. Staff Scientist benjamin.chaigne-delalande@nih.gov 301-496-3899
Zhiyu Li, M.D., M.S. Biologist lizhi@mail.nih.gov 301-594-3970
Jared Knickelbein, M.D., Ph.D. Clinical Fellow jared.knickelbein@nih.gov 301-443-8556
Karen Armbrust, M.D. Clinical Fellow karen.armbrust@nih.gov 301-443-8556
Lotta Utriainen Post-Doctoral Fellow lotta.utriainen@nih.gov 301-594-3999
Yang Shen Ph.D. candidate lotta.utriainen@nih.gov 301-451-9756
David Kuo Medical Student david.kuo2@nih.gov 510-213-4998
Brian Randall Post-bac IRTA Fellow brian.randall@nih.gov 301-594-7429

Recent Publications

Bhatt, N., W. Tucker, H. N. Sen and R. B. Nussenblatt (2016). “Biologic Therapies: Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Anti-Interleukins, Rituximab and Others.” Dev Ophthalmol 55: 252-264.

Kim, J. S., J. E. Knickelbein, L. Jaworski, P. Kaushal, S. Vitale, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2016). “Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in Uveitis: An Intravisit and Interobserver Reproducibility Study.” Am J Ophthalmol.

Olnes, M. J., Y. Kotliarov, A. Biancotto, F. Cheung, J. Chen, R. Shi, H. Zhou, E. Wang, J. S. Tsang, R. Nussenblatt and C. H. I. Consortium (2016). “Effects of Systemically Administered Hydrocortisone on the Human Immunome.” Sci Rep 6: 23002.

Bhatt, N., M. Dalal, W. Tucker, D. Obiyor, R. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2015). “Subconjunctival sirolimus in the treatment of autoimmune non-necrotizing anterior scleritis: results of a phase I/II clinical trial.” Am J Ophthalmol 159(3): 601-606.

Chen, P., A. Denniston, S. Hannes, W. Tucker, L. Wei, B. Liu, T. Xiao, S. Hirani, Z. Li, S. Jawad, H. Si, R. W. Lee, H. N. Sen and R. B. Nussenblatt (2015). “Increased CD1c+ mDC1 with mature phenotype regulated by TNFalpha-p38 MAPK in autoimmune ocular inflammatory disease.” Clin Immunol 158(1): 35-46.

Chen, P., A. K. Denniston, S. Hirani, S. Hannes and R. B. Nussenblatt (2015). “Role of dendritic cell subsets in immunity and their contribution to noninfectious uveitis.” Surv Ophthalmol 60(3): 242-249.

Chen, P., W. Tucker, S. Hannes, B. Liu, H. Si, A. Gupta, R. W. Lee, H. N. Sen and R. B. Nussenblatt (2015). “Levels of blood CD1c+ mDC1 and CD1chi mDC1 subpopulation reflect disease activity in noninfectious uveitis.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 56(1): 346-352.

Denniston, A. K., G. N. Holland, A. Kidess, R. B. Nussenblatt, A. A. Okada, J. T. Rosenbaum and A. D. Dick (2015). “Heterogeneity of primary outcome measures used in clinical trials of treatments for intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis.” Orphanet J Rare Dis 10: 97.

Fox, A., B. Jeffrey, S. Hasni, R. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2015). “Rituximab treatment for nonparaneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy.” Can J Ophthalmol 50(6): e101-104.

Grigg, M. E., J. P. Dubey and R. B. Nussenblatt (2015). “Ocular toxoplasmosis: lessons from Brazil.” Am J Ophthalmol 159(6): 999-1001.

Kim, J. S., J. E. Knickelbein, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2015). “Clinical trials in noninfectious uveitis.” Int Ophthalmol Clin 55(3): 79-110.

Knickelbein, J. E., C. C. Chan, H. N. Sen, F. L. Ferris and R. B. Nussenblatt (2015). “Inflammatory Mechanisms of Age-related Macular Degeneration.” Int Ophthalmol Clin 55(3): 63-78.

Liu, B., A. Dhanda, S. Hirani, E. L. Williams, H. N. Sen, F. Martinez Estrada, D. Ling, I. Thompson, M. Casady, Z. Li, H. Si, W. Tucker, L. Wei, S. Jawad, A. Sura, J. Dailey, S. Hannes, P. Chen, J. L. Chien, S. Gordon, R. W. Lee and R. B. Nussenblatt (2015). “CD14++CD16+ Monocytes Are Enriched by Glucocorticoid Treatment and Are Functionally Attenuated in Driving Effector T Cell Responses.” J Immunol 194(11): 5150-5160.

Schewitz-Bowers, L. P., P. J. Lait, D. A. Copland, P. Chen, W. Wu, A. D. Dhanda, B. P. Vistica, E. L. Williams, B. Liu, S. Jawad, Z. Li, W. Tucker, S. Hirani, Y. Wakabayashi, J. Zhu, N. Sen, B. L. Conway-Campbell, I. Gery, A. D. Dick, L. Wei, R. B. Nussenblatt and R. W. Lee (2015). “Glucocorticoid-resistant Th17 cells are selectively attenuated by cyclosporine A.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112(13): 4080-4085.

Casady, M., L. Faia, M. Nazemzadeh, R. Nussenblatt, C. C. Chan and H. N. Sen (2014). “Fundus autofluorescence patterns in primary intraocular lymphoma.” Retina 34(2): 366-372.

Dagur, P. K., A. Biancotto, E. Stansky, H. N. Sen, R. B. Nussenblatt and J. P. McCoy (2014). “Secretion of interleukin-17 by CD8+ T cells expressing CD146 (MCAM).” Clin Immunol 152(1-2): 36-47.

Dalal, M., M. Casady, E. Moriarty, L. Faia, R. Nussenblatt, C. C. Chan and H. N. Sen (2014). “Diagnostic procedures in vitreoretinal lymphoma.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 22(4): 270-276.

Grange, L., M. Dalal, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2014). “Autoimmune retinopathy.” Am J Ophthalmol 157(2): 266-272 e261.

Grange, L. K., A. Kouchouk, M. D. Dalal, S. Vitale, R. B. Nussenblatt, C. C. Chan and H. N. Sen (2014). “Neoplastic masquerade syndromes in patients with uveitis.” Am J Ophthalmol 157(3): 526-531.

Lee, R. W., L. B. Nicholson, H. N. Sen, C. C. Chan, L. Wei, R. B. Nussenblatt and A. D. Dick (2014). “Autoimmune and autoinflammatory mechanisms in uveitis.” Semin Immunopathol 36(5): 581-594.

Lima, B. R., E. D. Mandelcorn, N. Bakshi, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2014). “Syphilitic outer retinopathy.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 22(1): 4-8.

Nicholson, B. P., D. Nigam, D. Miller, E. Agron, M. Dalal, N. Jacobs-El, B. da Rocha Lima, D. Cunningham, R. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2014). “Comparison of wide-field fluorescein angiography and 9-field montage angiography in uveitis.” Am J Ophthalmol 157(3): 673-677.

Nicholson, B. P., M. Zhou, M. Rostamizadeh, P. Mehta, E. Agron, W. Wong, H. Wiley, R. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2014). “Epidemiology of epiretinal membrane in a large cohort of patients with uveitis.” Ophthalmology 121(12): 2393-2398.

Nussenblatt, R. B., R. W. Lee, E. Chew, L. Wei, B. Liu, H. N. Sen, A. D. Dick and F. L. Ferris (2014). “Immune responses in age-related macular degeneration and a possible long-term therapeutic strategy for prevention.” Am J Ophthalmol 158(1): 5-11 e12.

Sen, H. N., S. Vitale, S. S. Gangaputra, R. B. Nussenblatt, T. L. Liesegang, G. A. Levy-Clarke, J. T. Rosenbaum, E. B. Suhler, J. E. Thorne, C. S. Foster, D. A. Jabs and J. H. Kempen (2014). “Periocular corticosteroid injections in uveitis: effects and complications.” Ophthalmology 121(11): 2275-2286.

Wu, W., M. Jin, Y. Wang, B. Liu, D. Shen, P. Chen, S. Hannes, Z. Li, S. Hirani, S. Jawad, U. H. O. I. Consortium, H. N. Sen, C. C. Chan, R. B. Nussenblatt and L. Wei (2014). “Overexpression of IL-17RC associated with ocular sarcoidosis.” J Transl Med 12: 152.

Candia, J., R. Maunu, M. Driscoll, A. Biancotto, P. Dagur, J. P. McCoy, Jr., H. N. Sen, L. Wei, A. Maritan, K. Cao, R. B. Nussenblatt, J. R. Banavar and W. Losert (2013). “From cellular characteristics to disease diagnosis: uncovering phenotypes with supercells.” PLoS Comput Biol 9(9): e1003215.

Cunningham, M. A., Z. Li, B. Liu, S. Yeh and R. B. Nussenblatt (2013). “OX40 ligand expression abrogates the immunosuppressive function of retinal pigment epithelium.” J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 3(1): 12.

Jawad, S., B. Liu, E. Agron, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2013). “Elevated serum levels of interleukin-17A in uveitis patients.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 21(6): 434-439.

Jawad, S., B. Liu, Z. Li, R. Katamay, M. Campos, L. Wei, H. N. Sen, D. Ling, F. Martinez Estrada, J. Amaral, C. C. Chan, R. Fariss, S. Gordon and R. B. Nussenblatt (2013). “The role of macrophage class a scavenger receptors in a laser-induced murine choroidal neovascularization model.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54(9): 5959-5970.

Lima, B. R., R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2013). “Pharmacogenetics of drugs used in the treatment of ocular inflammatory diseases.” Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 9(7): 875-882.

Ling, D., B. Liu, S. Jawad, I. A. Thompson, C. N. Nagineni, J. Dailey, J. Chien, B. Sredni and R. B. Nussenblatt (2013). “The tellurium redox immunomodulating compound AS101 inhibits IL-1beta-activated inflammation in the human retinal pigment epithelium.” Br J Ophthalmol 97(7): 934-938.

Nussenblatt, R. B., B. Liu, L. Wei and H. N. Sen (2013). “The immunological basis of degenerative diseases of the eye.” Int Rev Immunol 32(1): 97-112.

Smith, W. M., G. Fahle, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2013). “A rare case of endogenous Aspergillus conicus endophthalmitis in an immunocompromised patient.” J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 3(1): 37.

Smith, W. M., T. A. Larson, A. D. Meleth, N. Krishnadev, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2013). “Corticosteroid-associated osteonecrosis: a rare, but serious, complication in uveitis.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 21(2): 102-107.

Thompson, I. A., B. Liu, H. N. Sen, X. Jiao, R. Katamay, Z. Li, M. Hu, F. Hejtmancik and R. B. Nussenblatt (2013). “Association of complement factor H tyrosine 402 histidine genotype with posterior involvement in sarcoid-related uveitis.” Am J Ophthalmol 155(6): 1068-1074 e1061.

Wei, L., P. Chen, J. H. Lee and R. B. Nussenblatt (2013). “Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation in Age-related Macular Degeneration.” Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2(4): 269-274.

Bakshi, N. K., G. A. Fahle, I. Sereti, H. Wiley, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2012). “Cytomegalovirus retinitis successfully treated with ganciclovir implant in a patient with blood ganciclovir resistance and ocular ganciclovir sensitivity.” Eye (Lond) 26(5): 759-760.

Daniel, E., M. Pistilli, S. S. Pujari, R. O. Kacmaz, R. B. Nussenblatt, J. T. Rosenbaum, E. B. Suhler, J. E. Thorne, C. S. Foster, D. A. Jabs, G. A. Levy-Clarke and J. H. Kempen (2012). “Risk of hypotony in noninfectious uveitis.” Ophthalmology 119(11): 2377-2385.

Jin, M., Y. Zhang, L. Pan, R. Dou, R. B. Nussenblatt and L. Wei (2012). “The Chinese medicine formula HB01 reduces choroidal neovascularization by regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor.” J Transl Med 10: 118.

Larson, T. A., M. Hu, J. E. Janik, R. B. Nussenblatt, J. C. Morris and H. N. Sen (2012). “Interleukin-2 receptor targeted therapy of ocular disease of HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 20(4): 312-314.

Liu, B., C. C. Chan and R. B. Nussenblatt (2012). “Application of small molecules/macromolecules in ocular inflammatory diseases.” Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem 11(2): 113-120.

Liu, B., H. N. Sen and R. Nussenblatt (2012). “Susceptibility genes and pharmacogenetics in ocular inflammatory disorders.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 20(5): 315-323.

Nussenblatt, R. B., D. Calogero, S. Y. Buchen, H. A. Leder, M. Goodkin and M. B. Eydelman (2012). “Rabbit intraocular reactivity to endotoxin measured by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and laser flare photometry.” Ophthalmology 119(7): e19-23.

Sen, H. N., T. A. Larson, A. D. Meleth, W. M. Smith and R. B. Nussenblatt (2012). “Subconjunctival sirolimus for the treatment of chronic active anterior uveitis: results of a pilot trial.” Am J Ophthalmol 153(6): 1038-1042.

Wei, L., B. Liu, J. Tuo, D. Shen, P. Chen, Z. Li, X. Liu, J. Ni, P. Dagur, H. N. Sen, S. Jawad, D. Ling, S. Park, S. Chakrabarty, C. Meyerle, E. Agron, F. L. Ferris, 3rd, E. Y. Chew, J. P. McCoy, E. Blum, P. J. Francis, M. L. Klein, R. H. Guymer, P. N. Baird, C. C. Chan and R. B. Nussenblatt (2012). “Hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter associates with age-related macular degeneration.” Cell Rep 2(5): 1151-1158.

Yeh, S., T. A. Albini, A. A. Moshfeghi and R. B. Nussenblatt (2012). “Uveitis, the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT), and intravitreal biologics for ocular inflammation.” Am J Ophthalmol 154(3): 429-435 e422.

Yeh, S., G. Fahle, F. Forooghian, L. J. Faia, E. D. Weichel, J. T. Stout, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, H. N. Sen and R. B. Nussenblatt (2012). “Polymerase chain reaction-based ganciclovir resistance testing of ocular fluids for cytomegalovirus retinitis.” Arch Ophthalmol 130(1): 113-115.

Dagur, P. K., A. Biancotto, L. Wei, H. N. Sen, M. Yao, W. Strober, R. B. Nussenblatt and J. P. McCoy, Jr. (2011). “MCAM-expressing CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood secrete IL-17A and are significantly elevated in inflammatory autoimmune diseases.” J Autoimmun 37(4): 319-327.

Faia, L. J., H. N. Sen, Z. Li, S. Yeh, K. J. Wroblewski and R. B. Nussenblatt (2011). “Treatment of inflammatory macular edema with humanized anti-CD11a antibody therapy.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(9): 6919-6924.

Hu, M., B. Liu, S. Jawad, D. Ling, M. Casady, L. Wei and R. B. Nussenblatt (2011). “C5a contributes to intraocular inflammation by affecting retinal pigment epithelial cells and immune cells.” Br J Ophthalmol 95(12): 1738-1744.

Larson, T., R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2011). “Emerging drugs for uveitis.” Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(2): 309-322.

Liu, B., L. Wei, C. Meyerle, J. Tuo, H. N. Sen, Z. Li, S. Chakrabarty, E. Agron, C. C. Chan, M. L. Klein, E. Chew, F. Ferris and R. B. Nussenblatt (2011). “Complement component C5a promotes expression of IL-22 and IL-17 from human T cells and its implication in age-related macular degeneration.” J Transl Med 9: 1-12.

Sen, H. N., A. A. Sangave, D. A. Goldstein, E. B. Suhler, D. Cunningham, S. Vitale and R. B. Nussenblatt (2011). “A standardized grading system for scleritis.” Ophthalmology 118(4): 768-771.

Wroblewski, K., H. N. Sen, S. Yeh, L. Faia, Z. Li, P. Sran, S. Gangaputra, S. Vitale, P. Sherry and R. Nussenblatt (2011). “Long-term daclizumab therapy for the treatment of noninfectious ocular inflammatory disease.” Can J Ophthalmol 46(4): 322-328.

Gottlieb, C., Z. Li, G. Uzel, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2010). “Uveitis in DiGeorge syndrome: a case of autoimmune ocular inflammation in a patient with deletion 22q11.2.” Ophthalmic Genet 31(1): 24-29.

Liu, B., L. Faia, M. Hu and R. B. Nussenblatt (2010). “Pro-angiogenic effect of IFNgamma is dependent on the PI3K/mTOR/translational pathway in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells.” Mol Vis 16: 184-193.

Mahdi, N., L. J. Faia, J. Goodwin, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2010). “A case of autoimmune retinopathy associated with thyroid carcinoma.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 18(4): 322-323.

Nussenblatt, R. B., B. Bielekova, R. Childs, A. Krensky, W. Strober, G. Trinchieri, A. Center for Human Immunology and N. I. o. H. Inflammation (2010). “National Institutes of Health Center for Human Immunology Conference, September 2009.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 1200 Suppl 1: E1-23.

Nussenblatt, R. B., G. Byrnes, H. N. Sen, S. Yeh, L. Faia, C. Meyerle, K. Wroblewski, Z. Li, B. Liu, E. Chew, P. R. Sherry, P. Friedman, F. Gill and F. Ferris, 3rd (2010). “A randomized pilot study of systemic immunosuppression in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration with choroidal neovascularization.” Retina 30(10): 1579-1587.

Nussenblatt, R. B., F. M. Marincola and A. N. Schechter (2010). “Translational medicine–doing it backwards.” J Transl Med 8: 12.

Nussenblatt, R. B. and C. L. Meinert (2010). “The status of clinical trials: cause for concern.” J Transl Med 8: 65.

Panda, P., F. Forooghian, T. Goodglick, C. C. Chan, R. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2010). “Orbital lymphoma masquerading as panuveitis.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 18(3): 181-183.

Saligan, L. N., G. Levy-Clarke, T. Wu, L. J. Faia, K. Wroblewski, S. Yeh, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2010). “Quality of life in sarcoidosis: comparing the impact of ocular and non-ocular involvement of the disease.” Ophthalmic Epidemiol 17(4): 217-224.

Sangave, A., L. J. Faia, S. Yeh, C. C. Chan, R. B. Nussenblatt and H. N. Sen (2010). “A case of rapid progression and vision loss in a patient with primary intraocular lymphoma.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 18(2): 99-100.

Yeh, S., F. Forooghian, L. J. Faia, E. D. Weichel, W. T. Wong, H. N. Sen, B. T. Chan-Kai, S. R. Witherspoon, A. K. Lauer, E. Y. Chew and R. B. Nussenblatt (2010). “Fundus autofluorescence changes in cytomegalovirus retinitis.” Retina 30(1): 42-50.

Yeh, S., F. Forooghian, W. T. Wong, L. J. Faia, C. Cukras, J. C. Lew, K. Wroblewski, E. D. Weichel, C. B. Meyerle, H. N. Sen, E. Y. Chew and R. B. Nussenblatt (2010). “Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the white dot syndromes.” Arch Ophthalmol 128(1): 46-56.

Yeh, S., Z. Li, H. N. Sen, W. K. Lim, F. Gill, K. Perkins, V. K. Rao and R. B. Nussenblatt (2010). “Scleritis and multiple systemic autoimmune manifestations in chronic natural killer cell lymphocytosis associated with elevated TCRalpha/beta+CD3+CD4-CD8- double-negative T cells.” Br J Ophthalmol 94(6): 748-752.

Yeh, S., E. D. Weichel, L. J. Faia, T. A. Albini, K. K. Wroblewski, M. Stetler-Stevenson, P. Ruiz, H. N. Sen, C. C. Chan and R. B. Nussenblatt (2010). “25-Gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for the diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma.” Br J Ophthalmol 94(5): 633-638.

Yeh, S., W. T. Wong, E. D. Weichel, J. C. Lew, E. Y. Chew and R. B. Nussenblatt (2010). “Fundus Autofluorescence and OCT in the Management of Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis.” Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging: 1-4.

Austin, B. A., B. Liu, Z. Li and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Biologically active fibronectin fragments stimulate release of MCP-1 and catabolic cytokines from murine retinal pigment epithelium.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50(6): 2896-2902.

Cunningham, M. A., B. A. Austin, Z. Li, B. Liu, S. Yeh, C. C. Chan, E. Anglade, P. Velagaleti and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “LX211 (voclosporin) suppresses experimental uveitis and inhibits human T cells.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50(1): 249-255.

Forooghian, F., S. Yeh, L. J. Faia and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Uveitic foveal atrophy: clinical features and associations.” Arch Ophthalmol 127(2): 179-186.

John, S., S. Yeh, J. C. Lew and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Protean manifestations of pediatric neurosarcoidosis.” Can J Ophthalmol 44(4): 469-470.

Nussenblatt, R. B., B. Liu and Z. Li (2009). “Age-related macular degeneration: an immunologically driven disease.” Curr Opin Investig Drugs 10(5): 434-442.

Pantanelli, S. M., Z. Li, R. Fariss, S. P. Mahesh, B. Liu and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Differentiation of malignant B-lymphoma cells from normal and activated T-cell populations by their intrinsic autofluorescence.” Cancer Res 69(11): 4911-4917.

Pasadhika, S., J. H. Kempen, C. W. Newcomb, T. L. Liesegang, S. S. Pujari, J. T. Rosenbaum, J. E. Thorne, C. S. Foster, D. A. Jabs, G. A. Levy-Clarke, R. B. Nussenblatt and E. B. Suhler (2009). “Azathioprine for ocular inflammatory diseases.” Am J Ophthalmol 148(4): 500-509 e502.

Sen, H. N., B. Bodaghi, P. L. Hoang and R. Nussenblatt (2009). “Primary intraocular lymphoma: diagnosis and differential diagnosis.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 17(3): 133-141.

Sen, H. N., G. Levy-Clarke, L. J. Faia, Z. Li, S. Yeh, K. S. Barron, J. G. Ryan, K. Hammel and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “High-dose daclizumab for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated active anterior uveitis.” Am J Ophthalmol 148(5): 696-703 e691.

Sen, H. N. and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Sympathetic ophthalmia: what have we learned?” Am J Ophthalmol 148(5): 632-633.

Sen, H. N., A. Sangave, K. Hammel, G. Levy-Clarke and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Infliximab for the treatment of active scleritis.” Can J Ophthalmol 44(3): e9-e12.

Tang, J., G. Fillmore and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome mimicking serpiginous choroidopathy.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 17(4): 278-281.

Yeh, S., N. K. Karne, S. P. Kerkar, C. K. Heller, D. C. Palmer, L. A. Johnson, Z. Li, R. J. Bishop, W. T. Wong, R. M. Sherry, J. C. Yang, M. E. Dudley, N. P. Restifo, S. A. Rosenberg and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Ocular and systemic autoimmunity after successful tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte immunotherapy for recurrent, metastatic melanoma.” Ophthalmology 116(5): 981-989 e981.

Yeh, S., J. C. Lew, W. T. Wong and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “Relentless placoid chorioretinitis associated with central nervous system lesions treated with mycophenolate mofetil.” Arch Ophthalmol 127(3): 341-343.

Yeh, S., Z. Li, F. Forooghian, F. S. Hwang, M. A. Cunningham, S. Pantanelli, J. C. Lew, K. K. Wroblewski, S. Vitale and R. B. Nussenblatt (2009). “CD4+Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells in noninfectious uveitis.” Arch Ophthalmol 127(4): 407-413.

Deschenes, J., P. I. Murray, N. A. Rao, R. B. Nussenblatt and G. International Uveitis Study (2008). “International Uveitis Study Group (IUSG): clinical classification of uveitis.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 16(1): 1-2.

Forooghian, F., I. M. Macdonald, J. R. Heckenlively, E. Heon, L. K. Gordon, J. J. Hooks, B. Detrick and R. B. Nussenblatt (2008). “The need for standardization of antiretinal antibody detection and measurement.” Am J Ophthalmol 146(4): 489-495.

Holland, G. N., R. Belfort, Jr., J. P. Dernouchamps, R. Franklin, A. C. Martenet, R. A. Nozik, R. B. Nussenblatt, S. Ohno, G. Palimeris, K. M. Saari, I. R. Schwab, A. G. Secchi, R. E. Smith, K. F. Tabbara and H. H. Tessler (2008). “Uveitis in 2008: a festschrift for G. Richard O’Connor, MD.” Am J Ophthalmol 146(6): 795-798.

Li, Z., B. Liu, A. Maminishkis, S. P. Mahesh, S. Yeh, J. Lew, W. K. Lim, H. N. Sen, G. Clarke, R. Buggage, S. S. Miller and R. B. Nussenblatt (2008). “Gene expression profiling in autoimmune noninfectious uveitis disease.” J Immunol 181(7): 5147-5157.

Liu, B., Z. Li, S. P. Mahesh, S. Pantanelli, F. S. Hwang, W. O. Siu and R. B. Nussenblatt (2008). “Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor negatively regulates activation of human primary natural killer (NK) cells by blocking proliferative signals and increasing NK cell apoptosis.” J Biol Chem 283(13): 8202-8210.

Nussenblatt, R. B. (2008). “Investigation of anterior uveitis / L’investigation de l’uveite anterieure.” Can J Ophthalmol 43(6): 630-633.

Palmer, D. C., C. C. Chan, L. Gattinoni, C. Wrzesinski, C. M. Paulos, C. S. Hinrichs, D. J. Powell, Jr., C. A. Klebanoff, S. E. Finkelstein, R. N. Fariss, Z. Yu, R. B. Nussenblatt, S. A. Rosenberg and N. P. Restifo (2008). “Effective tumor treatment targeting a melanoma/melanocyte-associated antigen triggers severe ocular autoimmunity.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(23): 8061-8066.

Rachitskaya, A. V., A. M. Hansen, R. Horai, Z. Li, R. Villasmil, D. Luger, R. B. Nussenblatt and R. R. Caspi (2008). “Cutting edge: NKT cells constitutively express IL-23 receptor and RORgammat and rapidly produce IL-17 upon receptor ligation in an IL-6-independent fashion.” J Immunol 180(8): 5167-5171.

Sen, H. N., C. C. Chan, G. Byrnes, R. N. Fariss, R. B. Nussenblatt and R. R. Buggage (2008). “Intravitreal methotrexate resistance in a patient with primary intraocular lymphoma.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 16(1): 29-33.

Tang, J., R. A. Stevens, A. A. Okada, M. Chin, R. B. Nussenblatt and C. C. Chan (2008). “Association of antiretinal antibodies in acute annular outer retinopathy.” Arch Ophthalmol 126(1): 130-132.

Yeh, S., L. J. Faia and R. B. Nussenblatt (2008). “Advances in the diagnosis and immunotherapy for ocular inflammatory disease.” Semin Immunopathol 30(2): 145-164.

Yeh, S. and R. B. Nussenblatt (2008). “Fluocinolone acetonide for the treatment of uveitis: weighing the balance between local and systemic immunosuppression.” Arch Ophthalmol 126(9): 1287-1289.

Yeh, S., K. Wroblewski, R. Buggage, Z. Li, S. K. Kurup, H. N. Sen, S. Dahr, P. Sran, G. F. Reed, R. Robinson, J. A. Ragheb, T. A. Waldmann and R. B. Nussenblatt (2008). “High-dose humanized anti-IL-2 receptor alpha antibody (daclizumab) for the treatment of active, non-infectious uveitis.” J Autoimmun 31(2): 91-97.

Levy-Clarke, G., S. Gangaputra and R. Nussenblatt (2007). “Treatment with TNF inhibitors for uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.” Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 3(11): 608-609.

Levy-Clarke, G., G. Reed and R. Nussenblatt (2007). “Is anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy effective in reducing uveitis flares in patients with spondyloarthropathies?” Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 3(7): 376-377.

Nussenblatt, R. B., H. Coleman, G. Jirawuthiworavong, G. Davuluri, N. Potapova, S. S. Dahr, J. A. Ragheb and G. Levy-Clarke (2007). “The treatment of multifocal choroiditis associated choroidal neovascularization with sirolimus (rapamycin).” Acta Ophthalmol Scand 85(2): 230-231.

Nussenblatt, R. B. and F. Ferris, 3rd (2007). “Age-related macular degeneration and the immune response: implications for therapy.” Am J Ophthalmol 144(4): 618-626.

O’Mahony, D., J. C. Morris, C. Quinn, W. Gao, W. H. Wilson, B. Gause, S. Pittaluga, S. Neelapu, M. Brown, T. A. Fleisher, J. L. Gulley, J. Schlom, R. Nussenblatt, P. Albert, T. A. Davis, I. Lowy, M. Petrus, T. A. Waldmann and J. E. Janik (2007). “A pilot study of CTLA-4 blockade after cancer vaccine failure in patients with advanced malignancy.” Clin Cancer Res 13(3): 958-964.

Yeh, S., R. B. Nussenblatt and G. A. Levy-Clarke (2007). “Emerging biologics in the treatment of uveitis.” Expert Rev Clin Immunol 3(5): 781-796.

Yin, P. D., S. K. Kurup, S. H. Fischer, H. H. Rhee, G. A. Byrnes, G. A. Levy-Clarke, R. R. Buggage, R. B. Nussenblatt, J. M. Mican and M. E. Wright (2007). “Progressive outer retinal necrosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: successful management with intravitreal injections and monitoring with quantitative PCR.” J Clin Virol 38(3): 254-259.

Bagley, D. M., P. L. Casterton, W. E. Dressler, H. F. Edelhauser, F. H. Kruszewski, J. P. McCulley, R. B. Nussenblatt, R. Osborne, A. Rothenstein, K. A. Stitzel, K. Thomas and S. L. Ward (2006). “Proposed new classification scheme for chemical injury to the human eye.” Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 45(2): 206-213.

Dana, R., R. Nussenblatt and L. Gordon (2006). “Advances in immunology: from bench to bedside–a symposium at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS), Boston, MA, USA.” Ocul Immunol Inflamm 14(1): 1-6.

Djalilian, A. R., C. N. Nagineni, S. P. Mahesh, J. A. Smith, R. B. Nussenblatt and J. J. Hooks (2006). “Inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production in human corneal cells by dexamethasone, but not cyclosporin.” Cornea 25(6): 709-714.

Kurup, S. K., R. R. Buggage, G. L. Clarke, R. Ursea, W. K. Lim and R. B. Nussenblatt (2006). “Gamma interferon assay as an alternative to PPD skin testing in selected patients with granulomatous intraocular inflammatory disease.” Can J Ophthalmol 41(6): 737-740.

Levy-Clarke, G. and R. Nussenblatt (2006). “Does anti-TNF therapy decrease the incidence of anterior uveitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis?” Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2(2): 72-73.

Last Reviewed: 
April 2016